What would typically cause the pressure–volume curve of the left ventricle to be shifted to the left? a) Aortic regurgitation b) Mitral stenosis c) Aortic stenosis d) Mitral regurgitation e) Tricuspid stenosis The correct answer is C In severe aortic stenosis , the left ventricle functions at the steep portion of the pressure-volume curve. In [...]

Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most likely to be secondary to a mutation in: a) Myosin regulatory proteins b) Myosin binding protein-C c) Myosin light chains d) Troponin I e) Troponin T The correct answer is B Molecular genetic research has demonstrated that familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by a mutation in one of nine genes that [...]

A 45-year-old patient on hemodialysis for one week has noted that his blood pressure is more difficult to control. He reports good compliance with his medications, which include erythropoietin, ferrous sulfate, vancomycin, and vitamin D. His blood pressure is 180/99 mm Hg. Which of the following is the most likely cause for the worsening control [...]