Which features are seen with the Tetrology of Fallot?
A. Ventricular septal defect
B. Overriding aorta
C. Right ventricular outflow obstruction
D. Right ventricular hypertrophy
E. All of the above
The Correct Answer is E
Tetralogy of fallot is characterized by four major defects. These four conditions include pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle occur due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. These problems include the following:
- Ventricular septal defect (VSD) – an opening in the ventricular septum, or dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.
- Pulmonary (or right ventricular outflow tract) obstruction – a muscular obstruction in the right ventricle, just below the pulmonary valve, that decreases the normal flow of blood. The pulmonary valve may also be small.
- Overriding aorta – the aorta is shifted towards the right side of the heart so that it sits over the ventricular septal defect.
“Tetralogy” refers to four heart problems. The fourth problem is that the right ventricle becomes enlarged as it tries to pump blood past the obstruction into the pulmonary artery.